Airsoft - Increasing Accuracy

After understanding the basics of how a gearbox works we can now go into some of the more complicated stuff such as increasing the accuracy of your gun.

One very important thing you want in an airsoft gun is accuracy. Before I get into how to increase your accuracy there is one thing I need to clear up. Accuracy is consistency, meaning you want your bb to travel where you are expecting it to go. The gun is always accurate in the sense that the bb will travel where it's going to travel, but you want to know where it will travel and you want it to go there every time.

One way of doing this is upgrading the quality of the inner barrel as well as the diameter of it. The tighter the inner barrel is the less room it has to veer off in a different direction. The quality of the inner barrel is key for overtime ware and are keeping it as seamless as possible.

Another way to increase accuracy is to upgrade the bucking (rubber piece on the barrel for hop up) and here you have a few options. You can simply go with a higher quality bucking or you can go with different styles. The typical style you will find in most guns is around oval being pushed down upon the bb from the top. This works but is not the most effective as if it is even 2mm off center your bb will veer off in a different direction then desired. 

Another form of hopup is called the flat hop. This is essentially a flat nub being applied to the bucking to give it an even flatness over the bb so that there is no one point that has more pressure on the bb. 

Then there is the r-hop, r-hop or round hop is a piece of rubber that is fitted over the window in the barrel and seamless with the outside of it as well as with the inside. It's essentially filling in the window as if it was never there but its rubber and not metal. This applies a more even spread of hopup going down nearly half way and has contact on all parts of the upper half of the bb. This is more consistent and so creates better accuracy.

The downside to an r-hop is it has to be very very precise, meaning that each rubber piece is fitted to the inner barrel and cannot be just bought and slapped on any old barrel. Which means either you do it yourself or you pay someone to do it for you, which is very expensive, costing anywhere from $40-150 depending on the length of the barrel.

Another way of creating consistency is to create a consistent air seal. Meaning the same amount of air is coming out every single time. One way of doing this is putting silicone lubricant on the o-rings inside the gearbox. This makes them puff out more which makes a tighter fit allowing no air to escape. Another way is to replace the parts creating the air seal with better quality stuff and dual o-rings making it nearly impossible for air to escape.

Airsoft - Into the Gearbox

For the most part, airsoft guns are very similar in their function, there is a gearbox inside the base of the gun that compresses air and releases it firing the bb forward.

There are 4 separate gears that travel from the motor to the piston which allows air to flow through the nozzle propelling the bb forward. The motor head has a small pinion gear that interacts with the bevel gear which interacts with the spur gear which interacts with the sector gear that pulls the piston back and springs forward which compresses air and releases that through the air nozzle at the top right of the gearbox. 

The air is compressed by a piston with a rubber seal being pulled back by the sector gear then shot forward by the spring. By replacing the spring you can increase or decrease the fps (feet per second) of the bbs. The stronger the spring is the faster the bb will travel. 

The trigger consists of two plates of metal touching which completes a circuit allowing power to flow to the motor. 
The sector gear has two metal nubs on it that pull back what is called a tappet plate. This pulls the nozzle back to load another bb into the hopup chamber.
Hopup Chamber.
Hopup applies backspin upon the bb as it flies through the barrel. It is not apart of the gearbox but attaches to it. To apply backspin there is a 1" rubber bucking that goes over the barrel and covers a little window in the barrel. Then there is a small nub that is applied over that window that interacts with the bb as it flies through which applies backspin allowing the bb to travel up, down or strait to allow it to go farther. 

SketchUp & Layout for Architecture | Texturing, Furniture, & Driveway

Once the initial schematic design is complete you can go through and add textures and fixings to fill up space and detect the rooms that need modifying and adjustments.

Do not spend too much time modeling the kitchen, the objective is to create a simple simulation of how the kitchen would be played out not every detail like trim, hinges, and knobs.

You want it simple so you can make fast changes as you go over the design with your client.

Use simple boxes to represent drawers and cupboards and subdivide them with horizontal lines to separate them from each other. The counter is done slightly differently, create a group aside from the rest of the rest of the kitchen unit and make it one object and paint it with the countertop texture of your choosing.

It's important to include these things to represent the furniture needed to fill each space and the flow of the house. The furniture should not be things you are modeling manually. Just grab them from the SketchUp warehouse.

Once your interior is complete for the schematic design phase its now time to focus on the exterior. Namely, the driveway. 

Bring your house model back into the terrain model. Next, create a plane large enough to cover the front of the house where the driveway will be located. Then intersect it with the house model to create the outline that you can work off of.

Next, hide your house model and change your perspective view to parallel perspective and look from the top viewport. Disable any layers that aren't necessary for this phase such as building setbacks etc. Make sure your main road, terrain contour lines and obstructions such as tree locations and large boulders. As well as hiding the terrain model or make it 2D.

Then, using the line tools you can begin to model the driveway, keep in mind the location of where it is located in tandem with the terrain contours. Meaning, find a spot that has a lower slope. Once you are fished modeling it save a copyright before you drape it on the terrain. 

Next, select the driveway and enable the terrain model and drape the driveway upon the terrain. Texture it beforehand if necessary 

SketchUp & Layout for Architecture | Roofs, Windows, Decks/Patio's, & Doors

When modeling the roof you want to only model the overall construction of the roof and not try to design the specifics. That will come in later. Model everything in the roof construction minus the tiles/shingles as they are not necessary for this step and will only get in the way. But add a shingle texture after for presentation.

If the roof is very complex or you are on a tight schedule don't worry about the roof segments intercepting each other. This stage of the design it doesn't matter any interior interceptions because all you need for this are the exterior elevations and if you make it too complicated it will make it more difficult to change it in the future.

The key is to keep it as simple as possible to make future changes go faster and with less time-consuming problems.

Make very rough estimations for the roof then clean them up before sending it to Layout for elevation and renderings.

For making decks and patios you want to bring your building back into the terrain model to reference it and decide how to go about creating them as it plays a huge part in placement and size. Like modeling the rest of the house only design the outer frame of the deck and not the finishes on top.

Making windows you only want to create a simple rectangle cut out and apply a glass texture to it or if you already have a window model you can bring that in but only do it if it's already cut to size. Don't spend too much time getting the exact framing of the windows and focus more on the whole shape.

Doors are slightly different. You want to cut out the size for a generic door and then model the approximate thickness of the door and rotate it in the middle of where it would swing. For example, if your front door swings inward when opened you would have it on a 45-degree angle inside the house and etc.

For doors, you want to be more precise and get the trim done (nothing fancy just a simple rectangular shape around the door) to emphasize the size

SketchUp & Layout for Architecture | Building Model

Once the site plan is complete with camera views for elevations and perspective scenes, its ready to start modeling the building.

Working with your client you can setup the floor plan, doing this either on paper or in a blank SketchUp file. This is to get the general layout of the building and location of each room. Then refine it on your own and clean it up.

Next go into your site plan and create a large plane (enough to fit all the setback lines within) and start sectioning the rooms off of that with a single line to divide them and adding no detail to it.

Make sure the building is within the setback and property lines and make the thickness of the floor. To set the thickness of the floor you want to find the complete width of the supports of the floor not including the finish, such as wood or tiling.

If the terrain is a lot higher in one area than another for a room you can select that separately and lift or lower it accordingly. 

Once you have your outline of the building you want to extract that and put it into another file to work within. If not the layers could get mixed and messed up. Then bring the building model back into the terrain file as a component and just update it when needed.

When copying it out you must copy the property line with it and copy from the origin and paste to the origin in the new file.

SketchUp & Layout for Architecture | Site Plan 4

Once you have your 3D terrain you can then use a tool called drape. This allows you to drape certain objects from the layers onto the 3D terrain. Select the layer you want to drape and select the terrain then click the drape tool.

Trees, using fully realistic 3D trees can look amazing but slow down the program a whole lot. However 2D trees may not show enough detail and won't look right from an overhead viewport. So you want a hybrid of these two. Basic 2D planes but several of them to make it look 3D.

Placement of trees should be easy now that you have draped on the tree's locations.

When draping items onto the terrain such as the road and boundary lines that you may want to texture you want to make sure that they are fully closed entities. So that when its draped it will remain closed, and so allows you to texture it.

Once tweaking the terrain a bit until it's satisfactory you can then create viewports for Layout. Change your viewpoint to have it completely flat. Next, go to the overhead view of your model and hold shift+z then hide all layers except the ones you wish to include in Layout. Add styles as needed and do this for each layer.

SketchUp & Layout for Architecture | Site Plan 3

Once you have each layer defined with the survey you want to set the north compass to the green axes. Next, you want to import the google earth texture to compare and add to your site.

Import the geolocation of your site from google earth which has a tool specifically for that in SketchUp. You don't want the 3D terrain for the time being so you can just hide that temporarily.

Make sure you set the green axes to north on the geolocated texture. 

To find the exact direction of North you can use the coordinates from the survey and then work off of the predefined lines in the site survey. 

If your site survey has a north direction other than the green axes and it is important for you to have accurate shadows you need to do these steps.

You will need to clear the shadows setting from the scenes bar so that they can be reconfigured. Using the solar north plugin. Adjust your compass from the site plan and rotate the image to match the green axes. 

Next, you can review your geolocated texture and the site plan and manually add in other objects that you wish.

Optimizing contour lines. SketchUp has a built-in tool that allows you to create terrain from contour lines. This is optional but will create more perspective while designing and will give you more ideas for the building. You want to create more than enough contour lines so that you will have space enough for your building and for Layout documentation.

Since you are drawing more terrain than needed you don't need to be precise. So this means you can manually draw them out with the freehand tool.

Now use the sandbox, from contours tool and elevate it into a 3D object

SketchUp & Layout for Architecture | Site Plan 2

To start modeling you want to import your site survey.

Having a bunch of different layers for the site is good for the organization.

Default layer - Default layer that should always be active

Google earth - Layers will contain images and terrain from google earth

building model - Building model to be placed in the site

object layers - Objects such as terrain, trees, and rocks

Special Layers - Property lines,  setbacks, and easements

Importing CAD site survey, Before opening the DWG file into SketchUp it is best to first open it in CAD to do some cleanup to the file.SketchUp will automatically delete things like dimensions, text, hatching, etc. Once it is imported into SketchUp you will want to do some cleanup and start to assign layers. 

Before you begin organizing the imported CAD, its best to make each layer have its lines show the same color that the layer is set to. pg-64-65

Once you assign everything to each layer you then want to purge the model. This essentially removes all objects that are not assigned to layers as well as layers that have nothing assigned to them. This likely won't remove all the entities you want to get rid of so you have to manually go through and delete objects you wish to remove.

SketchUp & Layout for Architecture | Site Plan, Client Information, & File organization

Creating a site plan before modeling your design ideas is ideal to capture the terrain, sun exposure, and wind to optimize the best building located on the site.

Predesign information, the location of tree's other structural buildings in lots nearby is important to the design phase. 

Find out what is important to the client to then incorporate their thoughts into your design.

The existing site is will play a very large part in the designing of the building.

Typically you would hire a site surveyor to provide you with a CAD file of the site for you to work off of.

The site survey should include

Property Lines - This would define the line of the property for you to design within

Property setbacks - There are certain restrictions for building on most sites that require a certain distance from things like roads and other properties.

Site contours - This defines the terrain where it rises and falls.

Roads - Knowing the location of the road is important for setting the location of the driveway and garage. 

Utilities - Pipelines such as water and sewage for designing is important to keep needless extra work from occurring.

Adjacent buildings - You need to know the location of nearby buildings to see how this affects your project. 

Trees - Trees and other vegetation are important for either removal or preservation of them during the construction phase.

Views - Waterfall's, mountains or other scenery is important to note for the placement of windows and outdoor features.

Compass - The site survey should have a compass facing north to define the direction of the site.


Client Program

One of the most important pieces of information is to find out the expectations and requirements of the project are. Things like family size, lifestyle, accessibility, style preference, business needs, room sizes and building size are all things that should be discussed with the client beforehand.

Starting a new project. The first step to starting a new project is to create a project folder and have templates to work off of.

Setting up an automatic backup file saver is very important.

Title Blocks. After making a copy of the template files you can start adding info to the title block such as client info and dates. Copy this to each file template for this project.